Nutritional science has traditionally used the reductionist approach to understand the roles of individual nutrients in growth and development. The macronutrient dense but micronutrient poor diets consumed by many in the Western world may not result in an overt deficiency; however, there may be situations where multiple mild deficiencies combine with excess energy to alter cellular metabolism. These interactions are especially important in pregnancy as changes in early development modify the risk of developing non-communicable diseases later in life. Nutrient interactions affect all stages of fetal development, influencing endocrine programming, organ development and the epigenetic programming of gene expression. The rapidly developing field of stem cell metabolism reveals new links between cellular metabolism and differentiation. This review will consider the interactions between nutrients in the maternal diet and their influence on fetal development, with particular reference to energy metabolism, amino acids and the vitamins in the B group.
Rees, W. D. (2019). Interactions between nutrients in the maternal diet and the implications for the long-term health of the offspring. In Proceedings of the Nutrition Society (Vol. 78, pp. 88–96). Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0029665118002537