A method for electromechanical modeling of line commutated converter (LCC)-modular multilevel converter (MMC)-based hybrid multi-terminal High Voltage Direct Current Transmission (HVDC) systems for large-scale power system transient stability study is proposed. Firstly, the general idea of modeling the LCC-MMC hybrid multi-terminal HVDC system is presented, then the AC-side and DC-side models of the LCC/MMC are established. Different from the conventional first-order DC-side model of the MMC, an improved second-order DC-side model of the MMC is established. Besides considering the firing angle limit of the LCC, a sequential power flow algorithm is proposed for the initialization of LCC-MMC hybrid multi-terminal HVDC system. Lastly, simulations of small scale and large scale power systems embedded with a three-terminal LCC-MMC hybrid HVDC system are performed on the electromechanical simulation platform PSS/E. It is demonstrated that if the firing angle limit is not considered, the accuracy of the power flow solutions will be greatly affected. Steady state calculation and dynamic simulation show that the developed LCC-MMC hybrid MTDC model is accurate enough for electromechanical transient stability studies of large-scale AC/DC system.
Xiao, L., Li, Y., Xiao, H., Zhang, Z., & Xu, Z. (2018). Electromechanical transient modeling of line commutated converter-modular multilevel converter-based hybrid multi-terminal high voltage direct current transmission systems. Energies, 11(8). https://doi.org/10.3390/en11082102