An Empirical Assessment of Marine Debris, Seawater Quality and Littering in Ghana

  • Van Dyck I
  • Nunoo F
  • Lawson E
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A baseline survey was carried out at four beaches along Ghana’s Accra-Tema coastline over a period of sixteen weeks to determine beach quality, seawater quality and the perception of beach users towards littering. A total of 18,241 items of marine debris which weighed 297.59 kg were collected. Plastic materials were the dominant debris, accounting for 63.72% of total debris. Land-based marine debris formed the largest proportion of debris collected (93% of items/m2 and 85 kg/m2). Water quality analysis revealed high mean levels of coliforms and E. coli above World Health Organization (WHO) levels on all four beach locations. A social survey that targeted beach users and some stakeholders revealed a habit of littering and beach users as the main source of litter generation on Ghana’s beaches. Intensive education, continuous monitoring and the enforcement of appropriate policy initiatives remain vital to addressing beach and water quality issues along Ghana’s coastline.




Van Dyck, I. P., Nunoo, F. K. E., & Lawson, E. T. (2016). An Empirical Assessment of Marine Debris, Seawater Quality and Littering in Ghana. Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, 04(05), 21–36.

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