Results of model simulations indicate that without the assumption of COD loss, predictions of oxygen consumption and volatile suspended solids production are significantly over-estimated for biological excess phosphorus removal (BEPR) activated sludge systems (and to a lesser extent anoxic-aerobic systems). These systems apparently consume less oxygen and produce less volatile solids than aerobic systems for the same amount of COD removal. A general model for biological nutrient removal systems has recently been presented by Barker and Dold. Three mechanisms for COD loss are suggested, based on results of COD balances for different types of activated sludge system. Model simulation results with and without the assumption of COD loss are discussed, as well as the influence of influent COD composition on predictions of volatile suspended solids concentration/production and oxygen consumption.
Barker, P. S., & Dold, P. L. (1996). Sludge production and oxygen demand in nutrient removal activated sludge systems. In Water Science and Technology (Vol. 34, pp. 43–50). Pergamon Press Inc. https://doi.org/10.1016/0273-1223(96)00627-0