Purpose: The CHHiP trial randomized 3216 men with localized prostate cancer (1:1:1) to 3 radiation therapy fractionation schedules: 74 Gy in 37 fractions over 7.4 weeks; 60 Gy in 20 fractions over 4 weeks; and 57 Gy in 19 fractions over 3.8 weeks. Literature-based dose constraints were applied with arithmetic adjustment for the hypofractionated arms. This study aimed to derive anorectal dose constraints using prospectively collected clinician-reported outcomes (CROs) and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and to assess the added predictive value of spatial dose metrics. Methods and Materials: A case–control study design was used; 7 CRO and 5 PRO bowel symptoms were evaluated. Cases experienced a moderate or worse symptom 1 to 5 years after–radiation therapy and did not have the symptom before radiation therapy. Controls did not experience the symptom at baseline or between 1 to 5 years after radiation therapy. The anorectum was recontoured from the anal verge to the rectosigmoid junction; dose/volume parameters were extracted. Univariate logistic regression, atlases of complication indices, and bootstrapped receiver-operating-characteristic analysis (1000 replicates, balanced outcomes) were used to derive dose constraints for the whole cohort (hypofractionated schedules were converted to 2-Gy equivalent schedules using α/β = 3 Gy) and separate hypofractionated/conventional fractionation cohorts. Only areas under the curve with 95% confidence interval lower limits >0.5 were considered statistically significant. Any constraint derived in <95% to 99% of bootstraps was excluded. Results: Statistically significant dose constraints were derived for CROs but not PROs. Intermediate to high doses were important for rectal bleeding, whereas intermediate doses were important for increased bowel frequency, fecal incontinence, and rectal pain. Spatial dose metrics did not improve prediction of CROs or PROs. A new panel of dose constraints for hypofractionated schedules to 60 Gy or 57 Gy are V20Gy <85%, V30Gy <57%, V40Gy <38%, V50Gy <22%, and V60Gy <0.01%. Conclusions: Dose constraints differed among symptoms, indicating potentially different pathogenesis of radiation-induced side effects. Derived dose constraints were stricter than those used in CHHiP and may reduce bowel symptoms after radiation therapy.
Wilkins, A., Naismith, O., Brand, D., Fernandez, K., Hall, E., Dearnaley, D., & Gulliford, S. (2020). Derivation of Dose/Volume Constraints for the Anorectum from Clinician- and Patient-Reported Outcomes in the CHHiP Trial of Radiation Therapy Fractionation. International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, 106(5), 928–938. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2020.01.003