Introduction: XMRV is a gammaretrovirus that was thought to be associated with prostate cancer (PC) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in humans until recently. The virus is culturable in various cells of human origin like the lymphocytes, NK cells, neuronal cells, and prostate cell lines. MicroRNAs (miRNA), which regulate gene expression, were so far not identified in cells infected with XMRV in culture. Methods: Two prostate cell lines (LNCaP and DU145) and two primary cells, Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes [PBL] and Monocyte-derived Macrophages [MDM] were infected with XMRV. Total mRNA was extracted from mock- and virus-infected cells at 6, 24 and 48 hours post infection and evaluated for microRNA profile in a microarray. Results: MicroRNA expression profiles of XMRV-infected continuous prostate cancer cell lines differ from that of virus-infected primary cells (PBL and MDMs). miR-193a-3p and miRPlus-E1245 observed to be specific to XMRV infection in all 4 cell types. While miR-193a-3p levels were down regulated miRPlus-E1245 on the other hand exhibited varied expression profile between the 4 cell types. Discussion: The present study clearly demonstrates that cellular microRNAs are expressed during XMRV infection of human cells and this is the first report demonstrating the regulation of miR193a-3p and miRPlus-E1245 during XMRV infection in four different human cell types.
Mohan, K. V. K., Devadas, K., Sainath Rao, S., Hewlett, I., & Atreya, C. (2012). Identification of XMRV infection-associated microRNAs in four cell types in culture. PLoS ONE, 7(3). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032853