In seven chronically instrumented conscious dogs, micromanometers measured left ventricular pressure, and ultrasonic dimension transducers measured left ventricular minor-axis diameter; the latter recording was filtered to examine data between 20 and 100 Hz. Acceptable external heart sounds were recorded with a phonocardiographic microphone in four of the seven dogs. With each dog sedatede, intubated and mechanically ventilated, data were obtained during hemodynamic alterations produced by volume loading, phenylephrine, calcium infusion and vena caval occlusion. Damped oscillations were noted consistently in the left ventricular diameter waveform toward the end of rapid ventricular filling. These wall vibrations, assessed by the Altered diameter, correlated well with the third heart sound (S3) on the phonocardiogram. The peak frequency of the wall vibrations increased with increased diastolic pressure (p = 0.004), probably reflecting an increase in myocardlal wall stiffness. In contrast, the amplitude of the vibrations varid directly with left ventricular filling rate (p = 0.0001). Thus, S3 seemed to be related specifically to ventricular wall vibrations during rapid filling, and the spectra of the amplitude-frequency relation shifted toward the audible range with increases in diastolic pressure, wall stiffness or filling rate. Spectral analysis of S3 may be useful in assessing pathologic chances in myocardial wall properties. © 1992.
Glower, D. D., Murrah, R. L., Olsen, C. O., Davis, J. W., & Rankin, J. S. (1992). Mechanical correlates of the third heart sound. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 19(2), 450–457. https://doi.org/10.1016/0735-1097(92)90504-G