This article is free to access.
Background: In acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), uncontrolled production of activators of coagulation and proinflammatory mediators results in a shift from an adequate local innate immune response to hypercoagulability and inflammation. This study aimed to investigate whether the protease inhibitors antithrombin (AT) and alpha-1 protease inhibitor (A1PI) may attenuate an exaggerated pulmonary immune response. Methods: Lung injury was induced either by single intranasal administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (5 mg/kg) in BALB/c mice or by combination of an intravenous injection of LPS (10 mg/kg) with subsequent injurious ventilation using high tidal volumes (12–15 ml/kg) for 4 h in RccHan Wistar rats. Animals received either a single bolus of AT (250 IU/kg) or A1PI (60 mg/kg) alone or in combination, with or without intravenous low-dose heparin (100 U/kg). Control animals received saline. Additional controls received neither LPS, nor ventilation, nor treatment. Endpoints were local and systemic markers of coagulation, e.g., thrombin–antithrombin complexes (TATc), and inflammation, e.g., interleukin-6. Results: Both lung injury models resulted in a pronounced immune response within the pulmonary compartment shown by elevated levels of markers of coagulation and inflammation. The two-hit lung injury model also induced profound systemic coagulopathy and inflammation. Monotherapy with AT or A1PI did not reduce pulmonary coagulopathy or inflammation in any lung injury model. Nor did combination therapy with AT and A1PI result in a decrease of coagulation or inflammatory parameters. AT markedly reduced systemic levels of TATc in the two-hit lung injury model. Systemic inflammation was not affected by the different interventions. Additional administration of heparin did not lead to macroscopic bleeding incidences. Conclusions: In two different murine models of acute lung injury, neither single therapy with AT or A1PI nor combination of both agents attenuates the pronounced pulmonary coagulation or inflammatory response.
Juschten, J., Ingelse, S. A., Maas, M. A. W., Girbes, A. R. J., Juffermans, N. P., Schultz, M. J., & Tuinman, P. R. (2019). Antithrombin plus alpha-1 protease inhibitor does not affect coagulation and inflammation in two murine models of acute lung injury. Intensive Care Medicine Experimental , 7. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40635-019-0240-7