We have synthesized a bimodal theranostic nanodelivery system (BIT) that is based on graphene oxide (GO) and composed of a natural chemotherapeutic agent, chlorogenic acid (CA) used as the anticancer agent, while gadolinium (Gd) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were used as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modality. The CA and Gd guest agents were simultaneously loaded on the GO nanolayers using chemical interactions, such as hydrogen bonding and π–π non-covalent interactions to form GOGCA nanocomposite. Subsequently, the AuNPs were doped on the surface of the GOGCA by means of electrostatic interactions, which resulted in the BIT. The physico–chemical studies of the BIT affirmed its successful development. The X-ray diffractograms (XRD) collected of the various stages of BIT synthesis showed the successive development of the hybrid system, while 90% of the chlorogenic acid was released in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) at pH 4.8. This was further reaffirmed by the in vitro evaluations, which showed stunted HepG2 cancer cells growth against the above 90% cell growth in the control cells. A reverse case was recorded for the 3T3 normal cells. Further, the acquired T1-weighted image of the BIT doped samples obtained from the MRI indicated contrast enhancement in comparison with the plain Gd and water references. The abovementioned results portray our BIT as a promising future chemotherapeutic for anticancer treatment with diagnostic modalities.
Usman, M. S., Hussein, M. Z., Fakurazi, S., Masarudin, M. J., & Saad, F. F. A. (2018). A bimodal theranostic nanodelivery system based on [graphene oxide-chlorogenic acid-gadolinium/gold] nanoparticles. PLoS ONE, 13(7). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0200760