Sound-based positioning systems are a potential alternative low-cost navigation system. Recently, we developed such an audible sound-based positioning system, based on a spread spectrum approach. It was shown to accurately localize a stationary object. Here, we extend this localization to a moving object by compensating for the Doppler shift associated with the object movement. Numerical simulations and experiments indicate that by compensating for the Doppler shift, the system can accurately determine the position of an object moving along a non-linear path. When the object moved in a circular path with an angular velocity of 0 to 1.3 rad/s, it could be localized to within 25 mm of the actual position. Experiments also showed the proposed system has a high noise tolerance of up to -25 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) without compromising accuracy.
Widodo, S., Shiigi, T., Hayashi, N., Kikuchi, H., Yanagida, K., Nakatsuchi, Y., … Kondo, N. (2013). Moving object localization using sound-based positioning system with doppler shift compensation. Robotics, 2(2), 36–53. https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics2020036