Risk factors for mortality in symptomatic hyperlactatemia among HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy in a resource-limited setting

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Abstract

Objectives: To determine the mortality rate and risk factors after experiencing symptomatic hyperlactatemia in HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted among patients who were diagnosed with symptomatic hyperlactatemia (lactate >2.5 mmol/l) between January 2004 and April 2006. All patients were followed until 3 months after the diagnosis. Results: One hundred and twenty-five patients were included in the study. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) age was 39.9 ± 10.1 years and body weight was 58.2 ± 16.9 kg; 60.8% were male. Symptomatic hyperlactatemia in 114 (91.2%) was associated with receiving d4T, in five (4.0%) with d4T+ddI, in four (3.2%) with ZDV+ddI, and in two (1.6%) with ddI (d4T, stavudine; ddI, didanosine; ZDV, zidovudine). The median duration of ART was 13 months. Nine (7.2%) patients died. Patients who died had a higher mean lactate level (8.0 vs. 5.1 mmol/l) and mean alanine aminotransferase (ALT; 164 vs. 48 U/l) at the time of diagnosis when compared to those who survived (p < 0.05). Patients who died had a lower mean weight than those who survived (48 vs. 59 kg, p = 0.008). By logistic regression, mortality was associated with patients whose body weight was <45 kg (p = 0.014, odds ratio (OR) 9.090, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.575-52.632) and whose serum lactate was >10 mmol/l (p = 0.004, OR 20.372, 95% CI 2.610-159.001). Conclusions: The mortality rate of symptomatic hyperlactatemia among HIV-infected patients receiving ART is substantial. Almost all patients received d4T. Patients who have a low body weight and high serum lactate level are at a higher risk of mortality. © 2008 International Society for Infectious Diseases.

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Manosuthi, W., Prasithsirikul, W., Chumpathat, N., Suntisuklappon, B., Athichathanabadi, C., Chimsuntorn, S., & Sungkanuparph, S. (2008). Risk factors for mortality in symptomatic hyperlactatemia among HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy in a resource-limited setting. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 12(6), 582–586. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2007.12.005

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