Objective To evaluate the impact of early prebiotic and probiotic intervention on preterm infants' well-being, crying, growth, and microbiological programming. Study design Ninety-four preterm infants (gestational age 32-36 weeks and birth weight >1500 g) randomized to receive prebiotics (mixture of galacto-oligosaccharide and polydextrose 1:1), probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG), or placebo during the first 2 months of life were followed up for 1 year. Infants were categorized based on the extent of crying and irritability during the first 2 months of life, and their gut microbiota was investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (n = 66) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (n = 63). Results A total of 27 of 94 infants (29%) infants were classified as excessive criers, significantly less frequently in the prebiotic and the probiotic groups than in the placebo group (19% vs 19% vs 47%, respectively; P =.02). The placebo group had a higher percentage of Clostridium histolyticum group bacteria in their stools than did the probiotic group (13.9% vs 8.9%, respectively; P =.05). There were no adverse events related to either supplementation. Conclusions Early prebiotic and probiotic supplementation may alleviate symptoms associated with crying and fussing in preterm infants. This original finding may offer new therapeutic and preventive measures for this common disturbance in early life. © 2013 Mosby Inc. All rights reserved.
Pärtty, A., Luoto, R., Kalliomäki, M., Salminen, S., & Isolauri, E. (2013). Effects of early prebiotic and probiotic supplementation on development of gut microbiota and fussing and crying in preterm infants: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of Pediatrics, 163(5). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2013.05.035