When we reflect on the emergence of online education and e-learning as the leading contender to confront the traditions of face-to-face teaching and learning, it is not only a case of better understanding the characteristics of online environments, but also timely to assess the relevance of theories and frameworks informing the design and implementation of those environments. Over the past twenty five years, the value of technology to education has been a significant focus of teachers, learners and institutional administration; it is also a period that has been characterised by lighthouse success stories, rigorous research, technological determinism and unfulfilled promises. As each new generation of technology appeared in the classroom (microcomputers, colour monitors, hypermedia, multimedia, internet), a new generation of early adopters appeared, each seemingly unaware of the research and knowledge gained by the previous generation. In this paper the argument is proposed that even with the strong foundation of knowledge that informs the appropriate ways to use technology for teaching and learning, too often that knowledge has been misunderstood or misused or ignored.
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