Purpose Prostaglandin analogues (PGA’s) are the mainstay and first line of treatment in current glaucoma practise. Though latanoprost and bimatoprost are the most commonly used PGA’s with minimal side effects at lower concentrations like bimaotoprost 0.01%, direct comparison of their cytokine/MMP profile in tears has not been evaluated earlier. The study intends to ascribe PGA to the upregulation of MMPs, Cytokines and Chemokines mediating varied pathways to result in side effects of the drugs. Methods Tear sample collection was done from outer canthus of 30 eyes of 30 patients (primary open angle glaucoma (n = 26 and n’ = 20), normal tension glaucoma (n = 4 and n’ = 10), in latanoprost (n) 0.005% and bimatoprost (n’) 0.01% group respectively, with a mean age of 62 ±10.5 years) on >6 months of PGA use using Tear floTM Schirmer filter strip. Tear samples from 30 eyes of 30 cataract patients without drug treatment were used as the control. Gelatinolytic activity of MMP-9 and MMP-2 were examined by substrate gelatine zymography MMP-1 and TIMP-1 concentrations from tears samples with PGAs were evaluated by ELISA while cytokine concentration in the eluted tears was evaluated using a convenient bioplex kit assay (Milliplex MAP kit, HCYTMAG-60K-PX41, Millipore, Massachusetts, United States). The mean duration of use of PGA in both groups did not differ significantly (median 1.3 years in bimatoprost and 1.1 years in latanoprost eyes, p = 0.6). Results The tear MMP-9 expression was higher in eyes receiving latanoprost while the MMP-2 expression was higher in eyes receiving bimatoprost with MMP1 protein levels being higher in the former. Latanoprost treated eyes had marginally elevated tear cytokines involved in tissue remodelling while bimatoprost eyes showed elevated cytokines regulating allergic pathways. Conclusion Differential cytokine and MMP expression indicates differential signalling pathways mediating different cellular effects (evident as clinical and side effects) with the two drugs which can be explored further.
Reddy, S., Sahay, P., Padhy, D., Sarangi, S., Suar, M., Modak, R., & Rao, A. (2018). Tear biomarkers in latanoprost and bimatoprost treated eyes. PLoS ONE, 13(8). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0201740