A sensitive and selective gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of morphine and codeine in human urine. The GC-MS conditions were developed. The analysis was carried out on a HP-1MS column (30 m × 0.25 mm, 0.25 m) with temperature programming, and Helium was used as the carrier gas with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode was used to quantify morphine and codeine. The derivation solvent, temperature, and time were optimized. A mixed solvent of propionic anhydride and pyridine (5: 2) was finally used for the derivation at 80°C for 3 min. Linear calibration curves were obtained in the concentration range of 25-2000.0 ng/mL, with a lower limit of quantification of 25 ng/mL. The intra- and interday precision (RSD) values were below 13%, and the accuracy was in the range 87.2-108.5%. This developed method was successfully used for the determination of morphine and codeine in human urine for forensic identification study. © 2013 Xiaoqian Zhang et al.
Zhang, X., Chen, M., Cao, G., & Hu, G. (2013). Determination of morphine and codeine in human urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/151934