The spectral characteristics and refractive index sensitivity of compound multiperiodic grating waveguides are investigated in theory and experiment. Compound gratings are formed by superposition of two or more monoperiodic gratings. Compared to monoperiodic photonic crystal waveguides, compound grating waveguides offer more degrees of design freedom by choice of component grating periods and duty cycles. Refractive index sensing is achieved by evaluating the wavelength or intensity of guided mode resonances in the reflection spectrum. We designed, fabricated, and characterized 24 different compound multiperiodic nanostructured waveguides for refractive index sensing. Simulations are carried out with the Rigorous Coupled Wave Algorithm (RCWA). The resulting spectra, resonance sensitivities, and quality factors are compared to monoperiodic as well as to three selected aperiodic nanostructures (Rudin-Shapiro, Fibonacci, and Thue-Morse). The refractive index sensitivity of the TE resonances is similar for all types of investigated nanostructures. For the TM resonances the compound multiperiodic nanostructures exhibit higher sensitivity values compared to the monoperiodic nanostructure and similar values as the aperiodic nanostructures. No significant influence of the compound grating duty cycles on the sensitivity is observed.
Neustock, L. T., Jahns, S., Adam, J., & Gerken, M. (2016). Optical Waveguides with Compound Multiperiodic Grating Nanostructures for Refractive Index Sensing. Journal of Sensors, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/6174527