Several lines of evidence have demonstrated that acute administration of ketamine elicits fast-acting antidepressant effects. Moreover, tramadol also has potential antidepressant effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pretreatment with tramadol on ketamine-induced antidepressant activity and was to determine the expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in rat hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Rats were intraperitoneally administrated with ketamine at the dose of 10mg/kg or saline 1h before the second episode of the forced swimming test (FST). Tramadol or saline was intraperitoneally pretreated 30min before the former administration of ketamine or saline. The locomotor activity and the immobility time of FST were both measured. After that, rats were sacrificed to determine the expression of mTOR in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Tramadol at the dose of 5mg/kg administrated alone did not elicit the antidepressant effects. More importantly, pretreatment with tramadol enhanced the ketamine-induced antidepressant effects and upregulated the expression of mTOR in rat hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Pretreatment with tramadol enhances the ketamine-induced antidepressant effects, which is associated with the increased expression of mTOR in rat hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Copyright © 2012 Chun Yang et al.
Yang, C., Li, W. Y., Yu, H. Y., Gao, Z. Q., Liu, X. L., Zhou, Z. Q., & Yang, J. J. (2012). Tramadol pretreatment enhances ketamine-induced antidepressant effects and increases mammalian target of rapamycin in rat hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, 2012. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/175619