Atrazine, metolachlor, carbaryl, and chlorothalonil are detected in streams throughout the U.S. at concentrations that may have adverse effects on benthic microbes. Sediment samples were exposed to these pesticides to quantify responses of ammonium, nitrate, and phosphate uptake by the benthic microbial community. Control uptake rates of sediments had net remineralization of nitrate (-1.58 NO3 μg gdm-1 h-1), and net assimilation of phosphate (1.34 PO4 μg gdm-1 h-1) and ammonium (0.03 NH4 μg gdm-1 h-1). Metolachlor decreased ammonium and phosphate uptake. Chlorothalonil decreased nitrate remineralization and phosphate uptake. Nitrate, ammonium, and phosphate uptake rates are more pronounced in the presence of these pesticides due to microbial adaptations to toxicants. Our interpretation of pesticide availability based on their water/solid affinities supports no effects for atrazine and carbaryl, decreasing nitrate remineralization, and phosphate assimilation in response to chlorothalonil. Further, decreased ammonium and phosphate uptake in response to metolachlor is likely due to affinity. Because atrazine target autotrophs, and carbaryl synaptic activity, effects on benthic microbes were not hypothesized, consistent with results. Metolachlor and chlorothalonil (non-specific modes of action) had significant effects on sediment microbial nutrient dynamics. Thus, pesticides with a higher affinity to sediments and/or broad modes of action are likely to affect sediment microbes' nutrient dynamics than pesticides dissolved in water or specific modes of action. Predicted nutrient uptake rates were calculated at mean and peak concentrations of metolachlor and chlorothalonil in freshwaters using polynomial equations generated in this experiment. We concluded that in natural ecosystems, peak chlorothalonil and metolachlor concentrations could affect phosphate and ammonium by decreasing net assimilation, and nitrate uptake rates by decreasing remineralization, relative to mean concentrations of metolachlor and chlorothalonil. Our regression equations can complement models of nitrogen and phosphorus availability in streams to predict potential changes in nutrient dynamics in response to pesticides in freshwaters.
Elias, D., & Bernot, M. J. (2014). Effects of atrazine, metolachlor, carbaryl and chlorothalonil on benthic microbes and their nutrient dynamics. PLoS ONE, 9(10). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0109190