The prevalence of autoimmune diseases has been increasing over the last 20 years. The clinical presentation of this large and heterogeneous group of disorders depends on whether the involvement is organ-specific or non-organ-specific. Dizziness, vertigo, and disequilibrium are common symptoms reported by patients with vestibulocochlear involvement. The association of vertigo and autoimmune diseases has been largely documented, suggesting that autoimmune disorders could be overrepresented in patients with vertigo in comparison to the general population. The aim of this review is to present the recent literature findings in the field of autoimmune-mediated diseases with cochleovestibular involvement, focusing on the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of immune-mediated inner ear diseases including autoimmune inner ear disease (AIED), Meniere's disease, and bilateral vestibulopathy, as well as of systemic autoimmune diseases with audiovestibular disorders, namely, Behçet's disease, Cogan's syndrome, sarcoidosis, autoimmune thyroid disease, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome, relapsing polychondritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphospholipid syndrome, IgG4-related disease, and ANCA-associated vasculitides.
Girasoli, L., Cazzador, D., Padoan, R., Nardello, E., Felicetti, M., Zanoletti, E., … Bovo, R. (2018). Update on vertigo in autoimmune disorders, from diagnosis to treatment. Journal of Immunology Research. Hindawi Limited. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/5072582