The influence of dusty environment (Makka city broken mountains) on bronchial asthma

  • Mohamed N
  • Al-Akad G
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BACKGROUND<br />In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the prevalence of asthma was 12%, with vast regional variations ranging from less than 10% in Dammam to 23% in Hail. Makka city has a lot of mountains that under the process of breaking causes dusty environment. So, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of broken mountain dusty environment on bronchial asthma patients in Makka city. <br /><br />SUBJECTS AND METHODS<br />The study included 50 male patients of bronchial asthma in 2 groups. Group (A); 25 bronchial asthma patients were not exposed to broken mountains, and group (B) 25 bronchial asthma patients were exposed to broken mountains. All patients were matched as regards age. Pulmonary function parameters [PEFR%, FEV1%, reversibility), skin prick test, immunoglobulin-E (IgE) and sputum levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and matrix metalloproteinase-9/tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-9 and MMP-9/TIMP-1) were measured. All patients received anti-asthmatic therapy (inhaled long acting B2-against and inhaled corticosteroid and theophylline) for one month then re-assess the condition as regards, asthmatic symptoms, pulmonary function parameters, and need for reliever. The patients were categorized as controlled, partially controlled and non-controlled. <br /><br />RESULTS<br />Group B was more worsening as regards, duration of symptoms, limitations of activities, awakening and need for more reliever. Also, group B was more worsening as regards pulmonary function parameters (PEFR%, FEV1%, reversibility). Group B was more atopic with higher matrix metalloproteinase-9 and ratio of matrix metalloproteinase-9/tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1. Lastly group B was worst than group A as regards controlling the attacks of bronchial asthma using anti-asthmatic therapy for 1month. <br /><br />CONCLUSION<br />Bronchial asthma patients in Makka city who were exposed to dusty environment due to broken mountains were more worsen clinically, functionally and as response to anti-asthmatic therapy than the other group who were not exposed to dusty environment.




Mohamed, N. A., & Al-Akad, G. (2014). The influence of dusty environment (Makka city broken mountains) on bronchial asthma. Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis, 63(2), 305–308.

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