Urine is a biological material that can be easily obtained in the clinic. The identification of proteins excreted in urine provides useful biological information about the kidney as well as a unique opportunity to examine physiological and pathological changes in the kidney in a noninvasive manner. Recent technological advances in urinary proteomic profiling have provided the foundation for a number of urinary proteomic studies directed at identifying markers of kidney disease diagnosis, prognosis, or responsiveness to therapy. In this review, we describe the strengths of different urinary proteomic methods for the discovery of potential biomarkers of kidney diseases. We also highlight the limitations and future goals of these approaches.
Jiang, S., Wang, Y., & Liu, Z. (2015). The application of urinary proteomics for the detection of biomarkers of kidney diseases. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 845, 151–165. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-9523-4_15