Smoking among female daily smokers in Surabaya, Indonesia

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Objectives: Nationally representative studies suggest 1–2% of Indonesian women (2.3 million)smoke various tobacco products daily; however, in recent years, there has been concern that the tobacco industry has successfully increased female smoking. Our objective was to describe current cigarette smoking behaviors, past quit attempts, and intention to quit of female daily smokers in Surabaya, Indonesia. Study design: Survey. Methods: Female daily smokers (n = 112)in Surabaya, Indonesia, the country's second largest city, were recruited to participate in a survey during 2018. Convenience sampling was utilized in two malls. Potential participants were intercepted in or near designated smoking areas and invited to the nearby data collection site. Survey items from Global Adult Tobacco Survey and the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project were utilized. Results: Participants self-reported smoking 13.8 cigarettes per day (7.3 white machine-rolled cigarettes per day, 4.2 kreteks per day, and 2.4 roll-your-own cigarettes per day). Over 75% smoked their first cigarette within 30 min of waking. Over 53% had a heaviness of smoking index score suggesting moderate or high addiction. Approximately half (51%)did not attempt to quit smoking in the previous 12 months, and 55% planned to quit beyond 6 months or not at all. Conclusions: Our sample smoked five to six more cigarettes per day than female daily smokers in previous national surveys. Relative to previous studies, our data suggest an unexpected preference for white machine-rolled cigarettes and that there could be, at a minimum, pockets of increased smoking and addiction among female daily smokers in Indonesia.




Hardesty, J. J., Kaplan, B., Martini, S., Megatsari, H., Kennedy, R. D., & Cohen, J. E. (2019). Smoking among female daily smokers in Surabaya, Indonesia. Public Health, 172, 40–42.

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