Trunk injection technology represents an alternative delivery system to provide crop protection for horticultural crops\r<br />of commercial and smallholder farmers in the developed and developing world. Field studies, laboratory bioassays, and\r<br />residue profile analysis were used to determine the seasonal effectiveness of trunk injected insecticides against key\r<br />apple insect pests. Insecticides formulated for trunk injection, imidacloprid, rynaxypyr, and emamectin benzoate were\r<br />injected into semi dwarf Empire apple trees and evaluated for a wide range of insect pests. Imidacloprid controlled\r<br />piercing and sucking pests, and emamectin benzoate controlled leaf rollers, Oriental fruit moth, and leafhoppers. The\r<br />residue profiles for insecticides showed that vascular delivery was predominantly to foliage, with fruit residues far below\r<br />the EPA maximum residue limits These results suggest that trunk injection is a promising delivering system for plant\r<br />protection materials for control of foliar pests, while minimizing impacts on natural enemies, eliminating spray drift, and\r<br />reducing the pesticide load in the agro-ecosystem. For smallholder farmers this low-capital investment technology has\r<br />the potential to significantly reduce the human health risks associated with pesticide use, while protecting high value\r<br />horticultural crops from pests.
Vandervoort C, V. A. (2014). Trunk Injection: A Discriminating Delivering System for Horticulture Crop IPM. Entomology, Ornithology & Herpetology: Current Research, 03(02). https://doi.org/10.4172/2161-0983.1000126