BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Spinal epidural AVFs are rare spinal vascular malformations. When there is associated intradural venous reflux, they may mimic the more common spinal dural AVFs. Correct diagnosis and localization before conventional angiography is beneficial to facilitate treatment. We hypothesize that first-pass contrast-enhanced MRA can diagnose and localize spinal epidural AVFs with intradural venous reflux and distinguish them from other spinal AVFs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-two consecutive patients with a clinical and/or radiologic suspicion of spinal AVF underwent MR imaging, first-pass contrast-enhanced MRA, and DSA at a single institute (2000 -2015). MR imaging/MRA and DSA studies were reviewed by 2 independent blinded observers. DSA was used as the reference standard. RESULTS: On MRA, all 7 spinal epidural AVFs with intradural venous reflux were correctly diagnosed and localized with no interobserver disagreement. The key diagnostic feature was arterialized filling of an epidural venous pouch with a refluxing radicular vein arising from the arterialized epidural venous system. CONCLUSIONS: First-pass contrast-enhanced MRA is a reliable and useful technique for the initial diagnosis and localization of spinal epidural AVFs with intradural venous reflux and can distinguish these lesions from other spinal AVFs.
Mathur, S., Symons, S. P., Huynh, T. J., Muthusami, P., Montanera, W., & Bharatha, A. (2017). First-pass contrast-enhanced MRA for pretherapeutic diagnosis of spinal epidural arteriovenous fistulas with intradural venous reflux. In American Journal of Neuroradiology (Vol. 38, pp. 195–199). American Society of Neuroradiology. https://doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5008