In order to provide a rigorous foundation for Software Product Lines (SPLs), several fundamental approaches have been proposed to their formal behavioral modeling. In this paper, we provide a structured overview of those formalisms based on labeled transition systems and compare their expressiveness in terms of the set of products they can specify. Moreover, we define the notion of tests for each of these formalisms and show that our notions of testing precisely capture product derivation, i.e., all valid products will pass the set of test cases of the product line and each invalid product fails at least one test case of the product line.
Beohar, H., Varshosaz, M., & Mousavi, M. R. (2016). Basic behavioral models for software product lines: Expressiveness and testing pre-orders. Science of Computer Programming, 123, 42–60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scico.2015.06.005