IPM Programs in Asia, including on rice, cotton and vegetables, have been broadly based on three dimensions. First is a solid IPM science basis including ecological interaction, plant physiology and soil-plant interactions. Second is policy for IPM, especially elimination of pesticide subsidies which cause over-use of pesticides and disrupt natural enemies leading to secondary pest outbreaks particularly on rice and cotton. Finally, the third dimension is farmer education through hands-on practical training. Lessons are drawn from the FAO Inter-Country Program for Rice IPM in Asia, the FAO-EU for Cotton in Asia and FAO Regional Vegetable IPM Program in South and Southeast Asia. A case study on cotton highlights broadened aspects of IPM activities through farmer empowerment.
Gallagher, K. D., Ooi, P. A. C., & Kenmore, P. E. (2009). Impact of IPM programs in Asian agriculture. In Integrated Pest Management (Vol. 2, pp. 347–358). Springer Netherlands. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-8990-9_9