Phylogenomic approaches have proven able to resolve difficult branches in the tree of life. New World direct-developing frogs (Terraranae) represent a large evolutionary radiation in which interrelationships at key points in the phylogeny have not been adequately determined, affecting evolutionary, biogeographic, and taxonomic interpretations. We employed anchored hybrid enrichment to generate a data set containing 389 loci and >600,000 nucleotide positions for 30 terraranan and several outgroup frog species encompassing all major lineages in the clade. Concatenated maximum likelihood and coalescent species-tree approaches recover nearly identical topologies with strong support for nearly all relationships in the tree. These results are similar to previous phylogenetic results but provide additional resolution at short internodes. Among taxa whose placement varied in previous analyses, Ceuthomantis is shown to be the sister taxon to all other terraranans, rather than deeply embedded within the radiation, and Strabomantidae is monophyletic rather than paraphyletic with respect to Craugastoridae. We present an updated taxonomy to reflect these results, and describe a new subfamily for the genus Hypodactylus.
Heinicke, M. P., Lemmon, A. R., Lemmon, E. M., McGrath, K., & Hedges, S. B. (2018). Phylogenomic support for evolutionary relationships of New World direct-developing frogs (Anura: Terraranae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 118, 145–155. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2017.09.021