In recent decades, increases in the world's population, unplanned urbanization, industrialization, agricultural activities, and expanded use of chemicals, has contributed to environmental contamination via emission of wastes and pollutants. Wastes (both inorganic and organic) that are produced by human activities have resulted in high volumes of contaminated water, contact with or consumption of which poses health threats to living organisms, including humans (Ahmad et al. 2010, 2012). © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.
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