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Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility, safety and long-term efficacy of super-selective trans-catheter arterial embolization for the management of intractable bladder bleeding. Materials and methods: The records of 20 patients with intractable haematuria referred urgently for selective arterial embolization after failed conventional therapy, between 2013 and 2018, were retrospectively analyzed. Primary outcomes were technical (cessation of extravasation and/or stasis of flow within the target vessel) and clinical (bleeding control) success. Secondary outcomes included complication and re-intervention rates. Results: Technical success was 90% (18/20 cases), as in 2 cases, embolization was not feasible. Super-selective embolization of the vesical arteries was feasible in 15/18 cases (83.3%). Selective proximal occlusion of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery was performed in two cases (11%) and embolization of the anterior division after coil blockage of the posterior division was performed in one case (5%). Bilateral and unilateral embolization was performed in 10 and 8 cases, respectively. Peri-procedural mortality rate was 5% (1/18 patients). One possible procedure-related death occurred due to myocardial infarction ten days following non-target embolization of the buttocks and the anterior abdominal wall. Mean time follow up was 35 ± 15 months. Bleeding reoccurred in three patients (16.6%), all successfully managed (one conservatively and two with further embolization). Clinical success was 85% (17/20 cases). During follow up 11 more patients died, due to underlying conditions not related to bleeding or the procedure. Conclusions: Super-selective angiographic embolization is feasible, safe and effective to control refractory, life threatening bladder bleeding and should be considered as a first line treatment, as to obviate the need for emergency surgery.
Tsitskari, M., Spiliopoulos, S., Konstantos, C., Palialexis, K., Reppas, L., & Brountzos, E. (2020). Long-term results of super-selective trans-catheter embolization of the vesical arteries for the treatment of intractable bladder haematuria. CVIR Endovascular, 3(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s42155-020-00188-1