This report elaborates upon involuntary return from Western societies to Afghanistan. As a result of increasingly restrictive asylum policies in West ern European countries that are focused on return, several initiatives have been undertaken to assist migrants in return. The aim of such assistance is sustainable re turn, or ́sustainable embeddedness ́ in the country of origin. In case of Afghanistan, the question re mains how returnees who left their Western host societies without the persona l desire to do so become re-embedded in a (post)-conflict society in which security and socio-economic conditions remain weak. Which factors influence this process and what is the role of assistance herein? This report discusses the levels of economic, social networks and psycho-social dimensions of embeddedness, including topics such as the sustainability of employment, income and housing, the role of social networks for mate rial and emotional needs, attitudes of and towards social environment and perceptions of return as failure. The report will also clarify the influence of individual char acteristics, such as education level, entrepreneurship capability and social class; migration cycle factors such as passiveness in the host country, remittances, savings and other contextual host country aspects and assistance factors related to preparation, labour market assistance and business assistance. All this will show to what extent involuntar y returnees from the West can find themselves a place again in Afghan society.
van Houte, M. (2016). Return Migration to Afghanistan. Return Migration to Afghanistan. Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-40775-3