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Emerging Vascular Risk Factors in Women: Any Differences from Men?

  • Katsiki N
  • Mikhailidis D
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Gender differences have been reported for traditional vascular risk factors such as smoking, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, age and family history of premature coronary heart disease. The prevalence, severity, associations and response to treatment of several emerging cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors may also differ between men and women. Such CVD risk factors include certain inflammatory and hemostatic markers, endothelial dysfunction, homocysteine, lipid disorders, microalbuminuria/proteinuria, coronary artery calcium score, arterial stiffness, periodontitis, inflammatory bowel syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea, impaired glucose metabolism, metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Further larger prospective studies are needed to establish these relationships. Hormone replacement therapy may also affect vascular risk. These data should be taken into consideration when assessing and treating CVD risk in women.




Katsiki, N., & Mikhailidis, D. (2015). Emerging Vascular Risk Factors in Women: Any Differences from Men? Current Medicinal Chemistry, 22(31), 3565–3579.

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