Terminal dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) is an invaluable technique used in the study of late-stage apoptosis. The technique is based upon detection of fragmented DNA, a well-recognized characteristic of apoptosis, usually with fluorescent markers. Here, we describe the TUNEL technique (1) employing two different detection techniques, fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (2) which can be applied to the analysis of apoptosis in retinal tissues or retinal cell cultures, respectively.
Doonan, F., & Cotter, T. G. (2012). Detection of DNA Fragmentation in Retinal Apoptosis by TUNEL (pp. 207–213). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-62703-080-9_14