Miscellaneous treatments for neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesia

  • Soares-Weiser K
  • Irving C
  • Rathbone J
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BACKGROUND Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a disabling movement disorder associated with the prolonged use of neuroleptic medication. This review, one in a series examining the treatment of tardive dyskinesia, will cover miscellaneous treatments not covered elsewhere. OBJECTIVES The primary objective of this review was to determine whether the following interventions were associated with a reduction of TD in people with schizophrenia, or others chronic mental illnesses: botulin toxin, endorphin, estrogen, essential fatty acid, EX11582A, ganglioside, lithium, naloxone, periactin, phenylalanine, piracetam, stepholidine, tryptophan, neurosurgery, or ECT. SEARCH STRATEGY Electronic searches of Biological Abstracts (1982-1995), Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Register of trials (1995), EMBASE (1980-1995), LILACS (1982-1996), MEDLINE (1966-1995), PsycLIT (1974-1995), and SCISEARCH (1995) were undertaken. References of all identified studies were searched for further trial citations. Principal authors of trials were contacted. SELECTION CRITERIA The inclusion criteria for all relevant randomised studies were that they should focus on people with schizophrenia or other chronic mental illnesses, with neuroleptic-induced TD and compare the use of the interventions listed above versus placebo or no intervention. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Forty references describing 31 different trials were identified by the search strategy. Of 31 trials, 15 trials were excluded, six trials were included, eight awaiting assessment and a further two trials are pending (awaiting translation, unable to locate). Data were independently extracted by each reviewer and the odds ratio or the average differences were estimated. The reviewers assumed that people who dropped out had no improvement. MAIN RESULTS Data were available about the efficacy and safety of cerultide, essential fatty acids, estrogen, lithium and insulin. There was a significant improvement in TD associated with the use of insulin compared to placebo (OR = 0.04, 95%CI 0.01-0.24). No significant differences between the other compounds and placebo were identified. REVIEWER'S CONCLUSIONS There is no strong evidence to support the use of any of the agents included in this review, however because of the small sample sizes, all results must be considered inconclusive. The association between low dose insulin and improvement of TD requires replication.




Soares-Weiser, K., Irving, C. B., & Rathbone, J. (2003). Miscellaneous treatments for neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.cd000208

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