© The Authors. Published by SPIE under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Distribution or reproduction of this work in whole or in part requires full attribution of the original publication, including its DOI. Two-photon fluorescence (TPF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy provide direct visualization of the skin dermal fibers in vivo. A typical method for analyzing TPF/SHG images involves averaging the image intensity and therefore disregarding the spatial distribution information. The goal of this study is to develop an algorithm to document age-related effects of the dermal matrix. TPF and SHG images were acquired from the upper inner arm, volar forearm, and cheek of female volunteers of two age groups: 20 to 30 and 60 to 80 years of age. The acquired images were analyzed for parameters relating to collagen and elastin fiber features, such as orientation and density. Both collagen and elastin fibers showed higher anisotropy in fiber orientation for the older group. The greatest difference in elastin fiber anisotropy between the two groups was found for the upper inner arm site. Elastin fiber density increased with age, whereas collagen fiber density decreased with age. The proposed analysis considers the spatial information inherent to the TPF and SHG images and provides additional insights into how the dermal fiber structure is affected by the aging process.
Wang, H., Shyr, T., Fevola, M. J., Cula, G. O., & Stamatas, G. N. (2018). Age-related morphological changes of the dermal matrix in human skin documented in vivo by multiphoton microscopy. Journal of Biomedical Optics, 23(03), 1. https://doi.org/10.1117/1.jbo.23.3.030501