Territorial management requires the most possible up-to-date mapping support of the status quo. Regional scale cartography update cycle is in the medium term (10 to 15 years): therefore, in the intervening time between updates relevant Authorities must provide timely updates for new works or territorial changes. Required surveys can exploit several technologies: ground-based GPS, Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS), traditional topography, or, in the case of wider areas, airborne photogrammetry or laser scanning. In recent years UAV-based photogrammetry is becoming increasingly widespread as a versatile, low-cost surveying system for small to medium areas. This surveying methodology was used to generate, in order, a dense point cloud, a high resolution Digital Surface Model (DSM) and an orthophotograph of a newly built marina by the mouth of the Arno river in Pisa, Italy, which is not yet included in cartography. Surveying activities took place while the construction site was in operation. Case study issues surfaced in the course of the survey are presented and discussed, suggesting 'good practice' rules which, if followed in the survey planning step, can lessen unwanted effects due to criticalities. Besides, results of quality analysis of orthophotographs generated by UAV-borne images are also presented. Such results are discussed in view of a possible use of orthophotographs in updating medium- to large-scale cartography and checked against existing blueprints.
Caroti, G., Piemonte, A., & Nespoli, R. (2017). UAV-Borne photogrammetry: A low cost 3D surveying methodology for cartographic update. In MATEC Web of Conferences (Vol. 120). EDP Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/201712009005