Dysregulation of the miR-30a/BiP axis by cigarette smoking accelerates oral cancer progression

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Abstract

Background: Cigarette smoking is the most significant cause of oral cancer progression. Cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) has been shown to induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP) being as an ER stress regulator, has been reported to be implicated in malignant behaviors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of the ER stress-responsive protein, BiP, in CSC-induced oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) malignancy. Methods: The biological role of BiP in CSC-induced tumor progression was investigated in OSCC cells (YD38 and SCC25) and in a tumor xenograft mouse model. The expressions of related genes were investigated using quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Cell migration and invasion were assessed using scratch wound healing and Transwell invasion assays. The effects of conditioned media from OSCC cells on the angiogenic activities of endothelial cells were analyzed using a tube formation assay. The interaction between miR-30a and BiP mRNA was detected using a luciferase reporter assay. Results: Our results demonstrated that CSC increased the expression of BiP in time- and dose-dependent manners in YD38 and SCC25 cells, and that silencing BiP abrogated CSC-induced cell invasion and tumor-associated angiogenesis. Notably, the putative miR-30a binding site was observed in the 3′untranslated region (UTR) of BiP mRNA, and miR-30a suppressed BiP expression by targeting 3′UTR of BiP transcript. In addition, CSC increased the expression of BiP in OSCC cells by downregulating miR-30a. We also showed that BiP promoted invasion and tumor-associated angiogenesis by increasing the production and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor in CSC-exposed OSCC cells. Moreover, BiP inhibition suppressed OSCC growth and reduced tumor vessel density in tumor-bearing mice administered with CSC. Conclusions: These observations suggest that epigenetic regulation of BiP via miR-30a downregulation is involved in CSC-induced OSCC progression.

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Chien, C. Y., Chen, Y. C., Lee, C. H., Wu, J. R., Huang, T. W., Huang, R. Y., … Shieh, Y. S. (2021). Dysregulation of the miR-30a/BiP axis by cigarette smoking accelerates oral cancer progression. Cancer Cell International, 21(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12935-021-02276-1

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