Context: Tension-free hernioplasty under local anesthetic infiltration is a reasonable choice for end-stage renal disease patients with hernia. Objectives: The purpose of the study was to investigate the feasibility of cryotherapy after hernioplasty surgery to relieve pain and scrotal edema. Methods: This was a prospective, randomized, and controlled trial held in a large integrated health care facility in South China. One hundred sixty-nine male patients on hemodialysis and scheduled for hernioplasty were enrolled between March 2013 and February 2017. The participants were divided into an intervention group and a control group. In the intervention group, ice packs were applied after surgery. Demographic information, vital signs, pain score, opioid consumption, wound inflammation, scrotal edema, and patient satisfaction were compared between the two groups. The primary outcome was pain score. Results: Cryotherapy-treated patients required less opioid consumption (5.95 vs. 15.29 mg; P < 0.05), reported lower pain scores from 30 minutes to 48 hours after operation (P < 0.05), less wound inflammation (11.90 vs. 32.94%; P < 0.05), lower incidence of scrotal edema in the first and second days (P < 0.05), and higher patient satisfaction (8.95 vs. 6.50 cm; P < 0.05), with stable vital signs throughout the monitoring period (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Owing to its favorable cost, convenience, and low frequency of adverse effects, cryotherapy is useful for end-stage renal disease populations after hernioplasty to relieve pain and scrotal edema.
Zhang, F. R., Zheng, Y., Yan, L. J., Ma, C. S., Chen, J. T., & Li, W. (2018). Cryotherapy Relieves Pain and Edema After Inguinal Hernioplasty in Males With End-Stage Renal Disease: A Prospective Randomized Study. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 56(4), 501–508. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2018.07.007