Since the original 1963 Frisbee flying discs have evolved, becoming ubiquitous and far-ranging. Effects of drag, lift, pitching moment and spin on range are analysed. With lift, ranges significantly exceed the drag-free ballistic range. An upper limit wings level case, optimized for range, is compared with the realistic free case of a spinning, banking disc. For 30 m/s launch and 0.033 minimum drag coefficient the wings level range is 186 m, but the free range only 157 m. Tests report ranges between 77 - 170 m. The procedure is a powerful tool for designing superior discs.
Lissaman, P., & Hubbard, M. (2010). Maximum range of flying discs. In Procedia Engineering (Vol. 2, pp. 2529–2535). Elsevier Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2010.04.027