Mild steel is relatively low-cost and easily accessible material to fabricate some structural members. It would be a significant advantage if seismic energy dissipaters that are used in structures constructed in the earthquake prone areas, could also be produced on site. In this paper, a promising seismic energy dissipater made of mild steel, so-called steel cushion (SC) is presented. It is provided experimental and analytical responses of SCs subjected to bi-axial loadings. SC rolls under the lateral loading that allows relocation of the plasticized cross-section. Henceforth, SC dissipates considerable amount of seismic energy. A series of tests were performed to achieve experimentally the behavior of SC subjected to longitudinal and transversal loading. Finite Element Models (FEMs) were also generated to reproduce the experimental backbone curves and to predict the bi-directional response properties for discrete transversal forces and plate thicknesses. Closed-form equations were derived to determine yield and ultimate forces and the corresponding displacements as well as location of the plasticized sections. The behavior of SC could either be projected by the FEMs with the exhibited parameters or by means of the proposed closed-form equations and the normalized design chart.
Yüksel, E., Karadoğan, F., Özkaynak, H., Khajehdehi, A., Güllü, A., Smyrou, E., & Bal, İ. E. (2018). Behaviour of steel cushions subjected to combined actions. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 16(2), 707–729. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-017-0217-4