Objective: To study the causes for the lack of clinical progression in a superinfected HIV-1 LTNP elite controller patient. Methodology and Principal Findings: We studied host genetic, virological and immunological factors associated with viral control in a SI long term non progressor elite controller (LTNP-EC). The individual contained both viruses and maintained undetectable viral loads for >20 years and he did not express any of the described host genetic polymorphisms associated with viral control. None of four full-length gp160 recombinants derived from the LTNP-EC replicated in heterologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells. CTL responses after SI were maintained in two samples separated by 9 years and they were higher in breadth and magnitude than responses seen in most of 250 treatment naïve patients and also 25 controller subjects. The LTNP-EC showed a neutralization response, against 4 of the 6 viruses analyzed, superior to other ECs. Conclusions: The study demonstrated that a strong and sustained cellular and humoral immune response and low replicating viruses are associated with viral control in the superinfected LTNP-EC. © 2012 Pernas et al.
Pernas, M., Casado, C., Arcones, C., Llano, A., Sánchez-Merino, V., Mothe, B., … López-Galíndez, C. (2012). Low-replicating viruses and strong anti-viral immune response associated with prolonged disease control in a superinfected HIV-1 LTNP elite controller. PLoS ONE, 7(2). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0031928