Nuclear clustering in N = Z nuclei has been studied since many decades. States close to the decay thresholds, as described by the Ikeda diagram, are of particular interest. Recent studies in loosely bound systems, as observed with neutron-rich nuclei has revived the interest in cluster structures in nuclei, with additional valence neutrons, which give rise to pronounced covalent molecular structures. The Beryllium isotopes represent the first example of such unique states in nuclear physics with extreme deformations. In the deformed shell model these are referred to as super- and hyper-deformation. These states can be described explicitly by molecular concepts, with neutrons in covalent binding orbits. Examples of recent experiments performed at the HMI-Berlin demonstrating the molecular structure of the rotational bands in Beryllium isotopes are presented. Further work on chain states (nuclear polymers) in the carbon isotopes is in progress, these are the first examples of deformed structures in nuclei with an axis ratio of 3 : 1. A threshold diagram with clusters bound via neutrons in covalent molecular configurations can be established, which can serve as a guideline for future work. © 2003 Académie des sciences. Published by Éditions scientifiques et médicales Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
von Oertzen, W., & Bohlen, H. G. (2003). Covalently bound molecular states in beryllium and carbon isotopes. Comptes Rendus Physique. Elsevier Masson SAS. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1631-0705(03)00052-5