Multiple clinical factors and now serum biomarkers may aid with risk stratification in vascular surgical patients. Herein, we review and update the clinical risk models, biomarker data, and currently used noninvasive cardiac stress tests. We also review the most recent American Heart Association guideline changes, and suggest a pathway for risk stratification.
Zarinsefat, A., & Henke, P. (2015, August 1). Update in preoperative risk assessment in vascular surgery patients. Journal of Vascular Surgery. Mosby Inc. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2015.05.031