Objectives. We aimed to investigate the impact of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-guided stent implantation on the 6-month restenosis rate, which has not yet been fully established in randomized trials. Background. The 6-month angiographic restenosis rate was compared in patients with symptomatic ischemic heart disease who were randomly allocated to angioplasty and stent deployment, with versus without IVUS guidance. Methods. After successful stent implantation, patients were randomized into two groups: Group A had no further dilation, and Group B had additional balloon dilation until achievement of IVUS criterion for stent expansion. The study group consisted of 164 patients, assuming a 50% reduction of the restenosis rate in Group B (15% vs. 30%) (alpha = 10%, beta = 20%). Results. We enrolled 155 patients. Overdilation was carried out in 31 (39%) of 79 Group B patients, with the IVUS criterion being achieved in 63 (80%) of 79. No significant difference was observed in the minimal luminal diameter (MLD), but the stent lumen cross-sectional area (CSA) was significantly larger in Group B (mean ± SD) (7.16 ± 2.48 vs. 7.95 ± 2.21 mm2, p = 0.04). At 6 months, there was no significant difference in the restenosis rate, (28.8% [21 of 73] in Group A vs. 22.5% [16 of 71] in Group B, p = 0.25), but according to the observed difference in the restenosis rate, the power of the study was only 40%. The difference in MLD was also nonsignificant (1.60 ± 0.65 mm in Group A vs. 1.70 ± 0.64 mm in Group B, p = 0.20), whereas the lumen CSA was 20% larger in the IVUS-guided group (4.47 ± 2.59 vs. 5.36 ± 2.81 mm2, p = 0.03). Lumen CSA was the only predictor of restenosis by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusions. A nonsignificant 6.3% absolute reduction in the restenosis rate and a nonsignificant difference in MLD were observed in this study. Nonetheless, we still cannot rule out a beneficial effect of IVUS guidance, although this may have gone undetected owing to a lack of statistical power. A significant increase was observed in immediate and 6- month lumen size, as detected by IVUS, indicating that ultrasound guidance in stent deployment may be beneficial.
Schiele, F., Meneveau, N., Vuillemenot, A., Zhang, D. D., Gupta, S., Mercier, M., … Bassand, J. P. (1998). Impact of intravascular ultrasound guidance in stent deployment on 6- month restenosis rate: A multicenter, randomized study comparing two strategies - With and without intravascular ultrasound guidance. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 32(2), 320–328. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0735-1097(98)00249-6