Malka presents convincing evidence in support of the claim that the rabbinic list is not indigenous but borrowed from the Roman legal institution of infamia, which was also attached to certain professions and also deprived persons of their eligibility for testimony. More important, she shows that this structural parallel is bolstered by a deeper conceptual parallel, for underlying both the rabbinic and the Roman disqualification is a wider Greco-Roman discourse on self-control (with Plutarch providing a four-fold list parallel to the tannaitic list in substance).
Hayes, C. (2019). Roman and Jewish Law: Looking for Interaction in all the Right Places. Law and History Review, 37(4), 955–959. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0738248019000713