To investigate the developmental exposure effect of citreoviridin (CIT) on postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis, pregnant ICR mice were dietary exposed to CIT at 0, 1, 3 and 10 ppm from gestation day 6 to postnatal day (PND) 21 on weaning. Offspring were maintained through PND 77 without CIT exposure. Male offspring were analyzed. At 10 ppm on PND 21, weak changes suggestive of neural stem cell reduction and progenitor cell proliferation were observed. Number of hilar CALB1+ interneurons reduced, suggesting an influence on neurogenesis. In contrast, number of hilar SST+ interneurons increased and Bdnf and Ntrk2 transcripts upregulated in the dentate gyrus, suggesting a facilitation of BDNF-TRKB signaling for progenitor cell proliferation. Transcript expression changes of an outside regulatory system suggested suppressed function of GABAergic interneurons, especially of PVALB+ interneurons for compensation on neural stem cell reduction. At ≥ 3 ppm, number of ARC+ mature granule cells increased, and at 10 ppm, number of hilar GRIA1+ cells increased and Gria2 and Gria3 upregulated, suggesting an operation of AMPA receptor membrane trafficking on the increase of ARC-mediated synaptic plasticity. On PND 77, all the transcript expression changes of the neurogenesis regulatory system except for Grin2d were inverted, suggesting an operation of a homeostatic mechanism on CIT-induced disruptive neurogenesis. Simultaneous downregulation of Grin2a and Grin2d suggests suppression of GABAergic interneuron function to adjust neurogenesis at the normal level. The no-observed-adverse-effect level of CIT for offspring neurogenesis was determined to be 1 ppm, translating to 0.13–0.51 mg/kg body weight/day of maternal oral exposure.
Nakajima, K., Masubuchi, Y., Ito, Y., Inohana, M., Takino, M., Saegusa, Y., … Shibutani, M. (2018). Developmental exposure of citreoviridin transiently affects hippocampal neurogenesis targeting multiple regulatory functions in mice. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 120, 590–602. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2018.07.051