Regioselective Thermal [3+2]-Dipolar Cycloadditions of α-Diazoacetates with α-Sulfenyl/Sulfinyl/Sulfonyl-β-Chloroacrylamide Derivatives to Form Densely Functionalised Pyrazoles

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Abstract

Highly regioselective synthetic methodology leading to densely functionalised C(3), C(4) and C(5) substituted pyrazoles 10a–q, 14a-i and 16a–g via thermal [3+2]-dipolar cycloaddition, of α-diazoacetates and α-thio-β-chloroacrylamides, at the sulfide, sulfoxide and sulfone levels of oxidation, is described. This method allows access to C(4)-sulfenyl or sulfonyl pyrazoles, through migration of the sulfur substituent at the sulfide and sulfone oxidation levels, while elimination of the sulfinyl group leading to 3,5-disubstituted pyrazoles, is observed. While the sulfide migration is readily rationalised, the carbon to carbon 1,2-sulfonyl migration is unprecedented and mechanistically intriguing. The synthetically versatile generation of densely functionalised pyrazoles containing substituents amenable to further modification offers advantages over alternative synthetic routes. Isolation of the N-alkylated pyrazoles 11a and 12a as by-products from the cycloaddition through further reaction of the pyrazoles 10 with excess α-diazoacetate, proved useful in rationalising the tautomeric behaviour evident in the NMR spectra of the pyrazoles, with the position of tautomeric equilibrium influenced by solvent and substituents.

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Flynn, A. J., Ford, A., Khandavilli, U. B. R., Lawrence, S. E., & Maguire, A. R. (2019). Regioselective Thermal [3+2]-Dipolar Cycloadditions of α-Diazoacetates with α-Sulfenyl/Sulfinyl/Sulfonyl-β-Chloroacrylamide Derivatives to Form Densely Functionalised Pyrazoles. European Journal of Organic Chemistry, 2019(31–32), 5368–5384. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejoc.201900494

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