A variety of vaccine packaging and delivery technologies may benefit the immunization supply chain. These include alternative primary packaging, such as blow-fill-seal polymer containers, and novel delivery technologies, such intradermal delivery devices, microarray patches, and sublingual formulations of vaccines, and others in development. The potential timeline to availability of these technologies varies and depends on their stage of development and the type of data necessary to achieve licensure. Some new delivery devices are anticipated to be introduced in 2017, such as intradermal devices for delivery of inactivated poliovirus vaccine to stretch vaccine supplies due to a supply limitation. Other new technologies requiring vaccine reformulation, such as microarray patches and sublingual vaccines, may become available in the long term (2021 and beyond). Development of many new technologies requires partnership between vaccine and technology manufacturers and identification of the applicable regulatory pathway. Interaction with public-sector stakeholders early on (through engagement with forums such as the World Health Organization's Immunization Practices Advisory Committee Delivery Technologies Working Group) is important to ensure suitability for immunization program use. Key considerations for programmatic suitability of a new vaccine, packaging, and delivery device include cold chain volume, costs, and health impact.
Zehrung, D., Jarrahian, C., Giersing, B., & Kristensen, D. (2017, April 19). Exploring new packaging and delivery options for the immunization supply chain. Vaccine. Elsevier Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.11.095