Genotype-phenotype correlations of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive neuronal loss and degeneration of upper motor neuron (UMN) and lower motor neuron (LMN). The clinical presentations of ALS are heterogeneous and there is no single test or procedure to establish the diagnosis of ALS. Most cases are diagnosed based on symptoms, physical signs, progression, EMG, and tests to exclude the overlapping conditions. Familial ALS represents about 5~ 10% of ALS cases, whereas the vast majority of patients are sporadic. To date, more than 20 causative genes have been identified in hereditary ALS. Detecting the pathogenic mutations or risk variants for each ALS individual is challenging. However, ALS patients carrying some specific mutations or variant may exhibit subtly distinct clinical features. Unraveling the respective genotype-phenotype correlation has important implications for the genetic explanations. In this review, we will delineate the clinical features of ALS, outline the major ALS-related genes, and summarize the possible genotype-phenotype correlations of ALS.




Li, H. F., & Wu, Z. Y. (2016). Genotype-phenotype correlations of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Translational Neurodegeneration, 5(1).

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