The transfer of carotenoids into the oil phase during digestion is limited by matrix related factors that hamper carotenoid release and the conditions of low gastric acidity that limit carotenoid solubility. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the use of high pressure homogenisation (HPH) as a driving force to favour carotenoid transfer to oil before digestion. The level of bio-encapsulation and carotenoid hydrophobicity were investigated as factors that may influence carotenoid transfer from tomato and carrot based matrices to oil upon HPH. The results indicated that the selective transfer of a particular carotenoid depended on its hydrophobicity. The cell wall in tomato cell clusters represents a limiting factor for carotenoid transfer. Overall, the findings indicate that HPH is efficient in transferring carotenoids to the oil phase and this can be crucial to improve the nutritional quality of carrot and tomato-based products.
Mutsokoti, L., Panozzo, A., Musabe, E. T., Van Loey, A., & Hendrickx, M. (2015). Carotenoid transfer to oil upon high pressure homogenisation of tomato and carrot based matrices. Journal of Functional Foods, 19, 775–785. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2015.10.017