Mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles as probable triggers of radiation-induced heart disease

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Abstract

Background: Radiation-induced heart disease has been reported, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), also residing in the heart, are highly susceptible to radiation. We examined the hypothesis that the altered secretion of extracellular vesicles (EVs) from MSCs is the trigger of radiation-induced heart disease. Methods: By exposing human placental tissue-derived MSCs to 5 Gy γ-rays, we then isolated EVs from the culture medium 48 h later and evaluated the changes in quantity and quality of EVs from MSCs after radiation exposure. The biological effects of EVs from irradiated MSCs on HUVECs and H9c2 cells were also examined. Results: Although the amount and size distribution of EVs did not differ between the nonirradiated and irradiated MSCs, miRNA sequences indicated many upregulated or downregulated miRNAs in irradiated MSCs EVs. In vitro experiments using HUVEC and H9c2 cells showed that irradiated MSC-EVs decreased cell proliferation (P < 0.01), but increased cell apoptosis and DNA damage. Moreover, irradiated MSC-EVs impaired the HUVEC tube formation and induced calcium overload in H9c2 cells. Conclusions: EVs released from irradiated MSCs show altered miRNA profiles and harmful effects on heart cells, which provides new insight into the mechanism of radiation-related heart disease risks.

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Luo, L., Yan, C., Fuchi, N., Kodama, Y., Zhang, X., Shinji, G., … Li, T. S. (2021). Mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles as probable triggers of radiation-induced heart disease. Stem Cell Research and Therapy, 12(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13287-021-02504-5

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